WCSU Undergraduate Catalog 2023-2024 : Macricostas School of Arts & Sciences


HIS 100 Introduction to History 3 SH
This is a basic skills course that does not focus on any one geographical or chronological area. Students would learn: geography, writing, footnoting/citing, methodologies, technology, library skills, etc. — all the fundamentals they will need to be majors. This course also includes a brief introduction to historiography. Students must enroll in this course within one semester of declaring the History major. Prerequisite: Declared History major. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), First Year Navigation (FY).

HIS 106 Social Justice and World History 3 SH
This course introduces students to methods of historical and cultural analysis by introducing a critical topic in current events and placing that topic in historical and cultural context. In addition, this course is designed to provide students with an introduction to navigating the college experience at WCSU and utilizing the resources available to students at this university. Competency: First Year Navigation (FY), Intercultural (IC).

HIS/WP 115 Latin American and Caribbean Civilization
See WP/HIS 115. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS/AAS 147 History of Slavery in the Americas 3 SH
This course examines the history of Slavery in the Americas between 1500 and 1900. Topics include slavery and abolition in North America, South America, and the Caribbean. By examining primary sources and drawing from various media, students consider the nature of plantation economies, questions of identity and bondage, the importance of resistance, and how challenges to slavery shaped emerging ideas of freedom. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS 148 American History: To 1877 3 SH
An examination of America’s history from colonial times through the Civil War and reconstruction. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 149 American History: Since 1877 3 SH
An examination of American history since 1877, focusing on major social, political and economic trends and examining the rise of industry, World War I and the civil rights movement. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS/WP 152 World History and Culture to 1500 3 SH
This survey course will emphasize world history in areas other than Europe and the United States. It will focus on the rise of Middle Eastern, African, Indian, East and Southeast Asian, and pre-Columbian civilization to the fifteenth century. The course will take a thematic approach, considering such topics as the rise of major religions, trade, migration, and empire. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS/WP 153 World History and Culture Since 1500 3 SH
This survey course will emphasize non-American, non-European world history, considering the impact of industrialization, global slavery, and the rise of Empire after 1500. The course will take a thematic approach, considering such topics as modernization, colonialism, trade, the Two World Wars, and the Cold War. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS 186 Europe: Ancient and Medieval 3 SH
A critical examination of the forces, movements and ideologies which established Western civilization as the dominant force of the modern world. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 187 Modern Europe 3 SH
An overview of European history and civilization from the Reformation to the present. The main themes will be the unity of the European experience. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 200 Colonial America: 1607-1815 3 SH
The course will begin with the earliest European settlements on the continent of North America, tracing the inception and expansion of the various mercantile empires with emphasis upon British colonialism. It will conclude with the mercantile period in United States history through the revolutionary period to 1815. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Intercultural (IC).

HIS 201 Immigrant NYC 3 SH
This course will examine the experience of immigrants and ethnic populations in New York City from the seventeenth century to the present.  Topics covered include family, neighborhood, work and the role food plays in building immigrant communities and the city of New York at large.  At their own expense, students will participate in a multi-ethnic eating tour of New York City’s Lower East Side. Competency: Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 205 War in Cinema 3 SH
This course will explore the political, social, cultural, and military aspects of the history of war movies, from the 1950s to the present, through consideration of numerous movies. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 206 Prosperity and Depression: America 1914-1939 3 SH
A study of the United States from 1914 to 1939, emphasizing the change to a consumer society, the debate over isolation and the problems of the Great Depression. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Oral Communication (OC).

HIS/WS 210 Women in American History 3 SH
This course provides a survey of the history of women in America from colonial settlement until the present. Students consider women’s economic contributions within the household and in waged work, as well as women’s changing political status and the shifting ideologies defining women’s roles. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 211 American Legal History 3 SH
This course will introduce students to the major themes in American legal history. Instruction will be chiefly discussion-based and the focus will be mainly upon primary materials-colonial charters, court decisions, constitutions, statutes, treatises, etc. Prerequisite: HIS 148 and HIS 149.

HIS 212 Recent American History: Since 1945  3 SH
A history of the United States since 1945, emphasizing the Cold War, the McCarthy era, the civil rights movement and the culture of the 1960s. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 213 Southern History 3 SH
In the colonial period, Southern distinctiveness was religious, geographic and economic. Then Southern statesmen led the patriot side in the American Revolution and took key roles in founding the United States of America. In the Early Republic, slavery became a peculiarly Southern institution and Southern political and economic priorities dominated the majority parties. This course will explore these periods as well as the years during and following the Civil War, the period through the end of segregation in the 1960s, and the years since then, mainly through consideration of a large number of primary documents. Alternate spring semesters. Prerequisite: HIS 148. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 216 Latinos & Latinas in U.S. History 3 SH
This course is centered on history yet also takes an interdisciplinary approach. It moves from the Latino/a, actual and mythic, through the Mexican-American War and the Spanish-American War, to the present day. Topics include the Bracero program, Puerto Rico, labor organization, political activism, and Latino/a culture. Reflecting our location, we will consider how Brazilian Americans fit into this picture. The contemporary politics of immigration and the border will also be considered. The class explores the difficulty of grouping diverse people, Hispanics, Chicanos, Mexicans, Mexican-Americans, Dominicans, Dominican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, Hispanos, Cuban-Americans, etc, as a single group. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS/AS 217 The American Dream: Visions and Revisions 3 SH
See AS/HIS 217

HIS 225 Doing Public History 3 SH
This course examines the connections between academic history and public history, in theory and in practice, and serves as an introduction to various subfields in public history. Students will explore the major theoretical, historiographic, ethical, and practical issues public historians face, through readings, writing, class discussion, and field study.  At the core of this course are questions of historic interpretation, collective memory, audience, and educational goals in public history programs. Competency: Creative Process (CP), Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 233 The Irish in America 3 SH
This course examines various waves of Irish immigrants to the United States from the colonial era to the present. This course will consider the role of religion, nationalism, popular culture, race, class and gender in the shaping of Irish American community and identity. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 245 Egypt of the Pharaohs 3 SH
Examines the history and civilization of ancient Egypt from 3100 B.C. to the fall of Cleopatra in 30 B.C. and demonstrates parallels of human behavior between antiquity and modern times. Analysis of the history of the dynastic period and the influence of the Nile on Egyptian civilization, religion (the temple, funerary rites, mummification), hieroglyphic writing, function and construction of the pyramids, the state apparatus, daily life of the people, and special emphasis on the only intact royal tomb found, that of Tutankhamen.

HIS 246 Judaism 3 SH
A survey of the history of the Jewish people and their religion from the earliest times to the present. Alternate fall semesters.

HIS 250 Conquest and Survival in Latin America, 1492-1812 3 SH
This course examines the history of Colonial Latin America, from Spanish Conquest until the era of Independence. The course focuses on the changes that occurred with the destruction of pre-Columbian American society and the creation of the New World. The way that interactions between European and the Spanish and the Portuguese, and Indigenous or African people in the Americas shaped this history is the center of the course. The stories involved touch on violence, genocide, greed, glory, bravery, resistance, religion, gender, and cultural adaptation. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS 251 Revolution and Resistance in Latin America, 1812 to the present 3 SH
This class explores the history of Latin America since Independence emphasizing the changes of those two centuries. Major themes include Independence, state formation, nationalism, urbanization, rebellion, economic development and economic nationalism, and national identity. Events receiving special attention include, the Mexican Revolution, Cold War politics, the Cuban Revolution, and contemporary politics. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS/PS 262 The History of the American Constitution 3 SH
A description and analysis of the history of the American Constitution from its origins during the colonial period to today. Spring semester. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 266 America’s War in Vietnam 3 SH
This course examines the roles of the United States in Vietnam from the early 1940s through 1975. Lectures and discussions focus particularly on America’s military and political efforts and continued debates over the nature of the evolving wars in Vietnam. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Intercultural (IC).

HIS 270 Christianity 3 SH
A dialogue analyzing Christianity as a cultural, political and social phenomenon and assessing its transcendent value for the individual. Every semester.

HIS 271 Medieval Europe 3 SH
This course will look at the development of Europe throughout the medieval period (600-1453). Classroom discussion will center around both the large political, social and cultural changes that affected the whole continent as well as the local developments of the many medieval kingdoms and regions. Close attention will be paid to the evolution of medieval ideas about gender, religion, politics, society and the economy and how the intellectual climate of the period affected the institutions that emerged at this time. Students will work closely with several primary sources and documents. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Intercultural (IC).

HIS 277 Modern China 3 SH
The founding of the People’s Republic of China was the culmination of a series of political, intellectual, and cultural upheavals that fundamentally shook the country (and the world) since the mid-nineteenth century. What happened, who made it happen and why? What has modernized and cultured globalization brought to the life of ordinary Chinese and at what cost? This course invites students to explore such questions by using a variety of primary sources. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS 281 Modern Middle East 3 SH
Analyzes the political, social and economic aspects of the modern Middle East from the early nineteenth century to the present, emphasizing the rise of modern nation-states and their conflicts and crises, including the Arab-Israeli conflict. Here, the emphasis is on Europe’s impact on the Middle East in the form of economic domination and colonialism, the importation of European ideas (nationalism, constitutionalism, democracy, capitalism, communism) and scientific developments (nuclear weapons, television). The reaction of the Middle Eastern people to this Western invasion is central to the discussion of these ideas. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS 287 History of Chinese Religions 3 SH
This course introduces the beliefs and practices of the major Chinese religions — Confucianism, Daoism, Chinese Buddhism, and popular religion. Emphasis is on the sociopolitical and cultural contexts of their historical developments; the patterns of their interactions and mutual accommodations; their influences in shaping gender roles and family structures in traditional and modern China; their reflections in Chinese folklore, art and literature; and their spread to, and further evolution in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. Competency: Intercultural (IC), Oral Communication (OC).

HIS 288 Renaissance, Reformation and the Age of Exploration 3 SH
This class will focus on the history of Europe during the early modern period, roughly the 14th until the early 17th century. Discussion begins with the question of what makes the events of these centuries “modern” rather than “medieval.” Then, the course examines the nature and manifestation of the “Renaissance” for the various cultures, classes, genders and media of Europe. Next, class discussion of the Reformation looks at the reverberations of this great religious upheaval in the political, social and economic institutions of 16th century Europe. Finally, this class studies the Age of Exploration within the context of the Renaissance and the Reformation. Students will work closely with a number of primary sources and documents. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Intercultural (IC).

HIS 289 Scientific Revolution and Age of Enlightenment 3 SH
This class will focus on the history of Europe during the early modern period, roughly the 16th until the 18th century, emphasizing the great intellectual developments during the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment. The course begins by looking at how these two great movements grew out of the Renaissance, Reformation and Age of Exploration. Students will look at several primary sources and documents that demonstrate the great questions that these thinkers were asking and the new methods they used to answer them. Class discussion also analyzes the impact that these new answers had on society and sees how the advances in science had a tremendous effect on the development of philosophy and political ideas during the Enlightenment. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or written permission of the instructor. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 290 The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848  3 SH
This course focuses on the origins and course of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic era and the Age of Reaction. The impact of the Industrial and Romantic Revolutions and the different ideologies of this era will receive special attention. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 291 The Age of Nationalism and Imperialism: Europe 1848-1914 3 SH
This course analyzes the force of nationalism in shaping and threatening the European state system. Imperialistic rivalries, new thought patterns and the road to World War I will also be examined. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 292 The Era of World Wars: Europe 1914-1945 3 SH
This course explores the period covering World War I and World War II in Europe. The impact of the Russian Revolution and the rise of Italian Fascism and German Nazism as well as the weaknesses and strengths of European democracies are analyzed. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT),  Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 293 Europe Since 1945: The Cold War  3 SH
This course focuses on the revival of Europe during the Cold War and World War II. The impact of American and Russian power rivalry, the fall of the Soviet empire and the dynamism of Europeans in reshaping their continent will be explored. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 294 Introduction to Historical Research 3 SH
The purpose of this course is to deepen the student’s understanding of the problems and possibilities of historical research. In this course, a debate between two or more professional historians is presented to students, and the student must design a research project that takes a unique position on the debate at hand. The student will develop the facility to ask relevant historical questions, evaluate data, and to present generalizations in a variety of written and graphic forms. Prerequisite: HIS 100.

HIS 298 Faculty Developed Study 1–6 SH

HIS 299 Student Developed Study 1–6 SH

HIS 302 The American Revolution: 1763-1789 3 SH
The Revolution was the most important event in American history. After the Seven Years War, Britain faced enormous fiscal problems. This course will cover the disputes between the mother country and 13 of its New World colonies that arose out of British efforts to deal with those difficulties, from the first attempt to impose an internal tax on the colonists to the inauguration of George Washington as the first president under the federal Constitution. Along the way, students will consider the military, diplomatic, constitutional, social, economic, intellectual, and religious history of the period, as well as the Revolution’s effect on the institution of slavery and the people who lived with it. Prerequisite: HIS 148. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 303 The Age of Jefferson 3 SH
This course will cover the history of the United States during the Early Republic. Topics considered will include the inception of the federal government, the first party system of Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans, Indian relations, foreign policy, the Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall, slavery, sectionalism, the influence of religion upon life in that period, the intellectual history of the time, and the Louisiana Purchase. Prerequisite: HIS 148. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 304 The Antebellum Era, 1815-1861 3 SH
This course will cover the history of the United States from the end of the War of 1812, the “Second War for American Independence,” to the secession of four Middle South States and the formation of the Southern Confederacy in 1861. Topics covered will include the political, intellectual, constitutional, social, religious, and racial history of the time. Prerequisite: HIS 148. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS 309 American Frontiers 3 SH
This course examines the creation of American frontiers from the colonial period to the present. Topics include the New England frontier, the settlement of the “Wild West,” the experiences of Native Americans, and 20th century interpretations of the frontier in film, fiction, and politics.

HIS 318 The Civil War 3 SH
An examination of American History from 1860 to 1877, focusing particularly on the Civil War and its effects. Prerequisite: HIS 256, HIS 148 or instructor’s written permission. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT).

HIS/WS 319 Women in Medieval and Early Modern Europe 3 SH
See WS/HIS 319 Competency: Intercultural (IC), Oral Communication (OC).

HIS 321 Medieval Cities 3 SH
This course focuses on the development of European cities and urban culture from the Fall of Rome in 476 until the Renaissance in the fourteenth century. The course is based on lecture, videos, required readings and primary source documents. Students spend the first half of the course studying urban government, economy, culture and spiritual significance across Europe. The second half of the course is dedicated to sharing student research. Each student will be asked to choose one city and to then create an oral presentation explaining the significance of that city and a creative project that will help them connect deeply to the experience of living in that medieval city. Offered every other Fall.

HIS 325 Witchcraft and Witch-Hunting in Early New England 3 SH
The course examines European and American definitions of and attitudes toward witchcraft between the Early Modern period and the present, with an emphasis on witchcraft and witch trials in colonial New England. The course emphasizes the role that gender and religion play in an analysis of the meaning of colonial witch-hunting. Prerequisite: WRT 101/101P or appropriate placement. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS 330 Medieval Britain 410-1453 3 SH
This class will study the history of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland through primary source reading on such topics as: Celtic migrations and identity formation after Roman occupation; Beowulf; Viking raids; the arrival of Christianity and the rise of scriptoria for illuminated manuscripts; King Arthur; the Norman Conquest; the Magna Carta; constitutional and cultural development under the Angevins and Plantagenets; the Black Death; the Peasants’ Revolts; and the Hundred Years War. Spring semester of odd-numbered years. Prerequisite: Junior standing or written permission of the instructor. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Intercultural (IC).

HIS 332 The Germans 3 SH
A historical evaluation of the myths and realities of German culture and politics since the middle of the nineteenth century. Alternate spring semesters. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 363 The American City 3 SH
Today most Americans live in cities. The purpose of this course is to trace the development of the modern American city. Particular emphasis will be placed on the 19th and 20th centuries when the industrial city evolved. The impact of urbanization on American life, shifting reactions of individuals and institutions to the problems and promise of urban life, and the efforts of Americans to shape the urban environment will be examined. Fall semester.

HIS 366 Vietnam War in Film & Literature 3 SH
This course examines the American war in Vietnam through film, novels, journalistic accounts, memoirs and other literary forms. These materials allow historians to explore the experiences of soldiers, the changing perceptions of war, the structures of memory and the uses of history within cultures. Competency: Intercultural (IC), Oral Communication (OC).

HIS 367 Building America: History as Revealed through Architecture 3 SH
Because of their cost, monumentality and permanence, buildings are prime indicators of the commitments and priorities of society. This interdisciplinary course will explore the connection between art and society by an examination of specific buildings and architectural styles as carriers of cultural images. The meaning of buildings and styles for those who commissioned, built and used them will be sought. The student will become more sensitive to the importance of visual evidence to an understanding of the American past. This course is particularly appropriate for those interested in historic preservation and museum work. Spring semester.

HIS 368 New York City: Its History and Culture 3 SH
This course surveys the political, social and cultural development of New York City with emphasis on the borough of Manhattan. At their own expense, students will frequently visit the city and explore its resources. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS 370 From Salt to Cocaine: Commodities in Latin America 3 SH
This course examines commodities and commodity trades in Latin American history. Commodities considered include the ancient: salt, feathers, obsidian, jade; the Colonial: sugar, cochineal, gold and silver, timber; the agricultural: coffee, bananas, cacao; the industrial: rubber, tin, guano, oil; and the contemporary: cocaine, natural gas, cut flowers. Major themes include the relationship of commerce and politics, the economics of demography, fashion, the dynamic nature of taste, and Latin America’s interconnection to the global market. Prerequisite: WRT 101/101P or appropriate placement.  Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS 375 War, Peace, and Memory in Latin America 3 SH
This course considers the politics of internal wars and post-war society in Latin America after 1960. The focus is on why these episodes of domestic conflict took place, peaceful transitions to post-war eras, Truth & Reconciliation commissions, and the growth of public memory projects. The course draws on historical examples from across Latin America: the military dictatorships and peaceful democratic transitions of the Southern Cone; the struggle between the Peruvian State and the Shining Path Guerrilla; the Cold War Violence and ethnic genocide in Guatemala; and the peace negotiations in twenty-first-century Colombia. Prerequisite: WRT 101/101P or appropriate placement. Competency: Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS 380 Film as History 3 SH
An analysis of representative films as reflections of the cultural and political attitudes of their creators.

HIS/PS 382 Contemporary Middle East 3 SH
Analysis of the governments and politics of the Middle East and North Africa since World War II. Topics include the Arab League, the Arab-Palestinian-Israeli conflict, regional alliances, the major powers’ rivalries, the emergence of OPEC and power of “petro-dollars,” economic development, the various political systems and their reaction to social change and women’s movements. Consideration will be given to the legislative, executive and judicial machinery of politics and the elements that affect the actual translation of goals and policy into action in a Middle Eastern case study. Alternate academic years. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS 383 Islam: A Religion & Civilization 3 SH
A historical study of the religion of Islam, its basic beliefs and pillars beginning with the birth of the Prophet Muhammad and early revelations to the European incursion at the end of the eighteenth century. The course follows the growth of a small Muslim community in the western part of the Arabian peninsula to Islamic Empires(s) ruling over territories stretching from central and southern Asia to the Iberian peninsula in Europe, emphasizing the origins, achievements and developments of the politics, economics, and religious conditions of the Islamic age. Alternate fall or spring semesters. Competency: Intercultural (IC).

HIS/ED 385 Methods of Teaching in the Secondary Schools 3 SH
See ED/HIS 385

HIS/ED 386 Secondary Education Professional Development School Experience 1 SH
See ED/HIS 386

HIS 388 Modern Vietnam: Memory & History 3 SH
This course presents an introduction of modern Vietnam from the inception of the Tay Son rebellion (1771-1802) to the present. It concentrates on the interaction between history and memory. We will discuss several fundamental texts in Vietnamese history and literature since 1771, examining the following themes: religious conflict, imperialism, nationalism, communism, the effect of the U.S.-Vietnam war on Vietnamese society, regional differences and the transition from a socialist to a market economy.

HIS 392 Internship in Public History and Archives 3 SH
In this course, students will obtain hands-on experience in the application of theories and methods of public history and where they intersect with the operation and administration of archives and museums. Settings for internships will include the WCSU Archives and other local and regional archives, and museums, historical societies or comparable public history organizations. Students will collaborate with the course instructor to select an internship site, and develop a directed reading list that reflects the field work in which they will be engaged. They must complete a minimum of 75 hours of site experience in a semester. Students will also meet for one academic hour of classroom instruction each week of the semester. Competency: Information Literacy (IL).

HIS 398 Faculty Developed Study 1–6 SH

HIS 399 Student Developed Study 1–6 SH

HIS 415 Great American Thinkers 3 SH
This course considers the intellectual history of the United States from the settlement of Jamestown in 1607 to the present. Topics covered include theological, scientific, economic, political, gender, and cultural thought. Prerequisite: HIS 149. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS 416 Race and Power in U.S. History 3 SH
This course examines how race has functioned historically in relation to conceptions of “Americanness.” This course considers theoretical approaches to race and explores how various groups continue to navigate racial hierarchies in the United States. Prerequisite: HIs 148 or HIS 149 and WRT 101/101P or appropriate placement . Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS 425 Gender and Popular Culture in American History 3 SH
This interdisciplinary course will explore the impact of popular culture – including fiction and non-fiction, magazines, prescriptive literature, music, art, toys, fashion, advertisements, film, and digital media (among many other categories) – on gender shaping and reflecting norms in American history, from the seventeenth century to the present. Prerequisite: WRT 101/101P or appropriate placement. Competency: Information Literacy (IL), Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS/ED 441 Teaching History and Social Studies in Secondary Schools 3 SH
See ED/HIS 441

HIS 450 Historiography 3 SH
An intensive analysis of historians whose writings have presented differing interpretations of the past. Every fall semester. Prerequisite: HIS 100 and Junior or Senior standing and WRT 101/101P or appropriate placement. Competency: Critical Thinking (CT), Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS/AAS 470 Slavery & Abolition in the Atlantic World 3 SH
This course examines the history of Atlantic Slavery and its Abolition between the 15th and 19th century. From the development of the trade as a fundamental element in the creation of the Modern World this class examines the institution of slavery as an economic, cultural, political, and social reality. Topics covered include the rise of plantation economies across the Americas; the ways that slavery shaped life and society throughout the Americas away from plantations; the changes in the institution of slavery over the course of several centuries; how gender roles shaped this history for both the enslaved and free; how non-slave societies were linked to plantation economies; how resistance and flight shaped society; and the nature of abolition across the hemisphere. Prerequisite: WRT 101/101P or appropriate placement. Competency: Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS 475 Seminar in History 3 SH
The seminar is designed to engage students and faculty in a discussion on a special topic of particular interest to a faculty member’s research agenda and/or of particular relevance to current events. It provides an intensive investigation of a historical problem, theme, period, or topic in intellectual, cultural, social, political, economic, or diplomatic history. Students will engage in critical reading of historical documents, research into relevant sources, and analysis of historical methodologies which can be applied in investigation. The focus of each seminar section varies by instructor, and is detailed in course descriptions provided on the schedule of classes. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing; WRT 101/101P or appropriate placement. The course may be repeated in a different subfield, which are United States history, European history, or Non-Western history, with instructor permission. Competency: Writing Intensive Tier 2 (W2).

HIS 490 Senior Seminar 3 SH
A seminar designed to reinforce research methods and provide students an opportunity to produce a significant project. Students will either complete a research paper or a final project. Final projects might be multimedia presentations, curriculum proposals, advocacy papers, or other creative projects. Students should complete a resume and cover letter assignment. Students should complete an annotated bibliography on a research topic of their choice. Prerequisite: HIS 100; HIS 294; Junior or Senior standing. Competency: Culminating Experience (CE), Writing Intensive Tier 3 (W3).

HIS 494 Independent Research Project 3 SH
In this project, students will work with a faculty member of their choice to explore a general theme or topic in history and develop distinctive skills in historical reasoning, discussion, and scholarship. Each student will produce a research paper on a topic relating to the theme of the course. Students who receive a grade of B or higher in this course and satisfy other History major requirements will graduate with Distinction in their degree program. Spring semester. Prerequisite: History major, Junior or Senior standing, and 3.2 overall GPA at WCSU; or special permission from the department. Competencies: Culminating Experience (CE), Writing Intensive Tier 3 (W3).

HIS 498 Faculty Developed Study 1–6 SH

HIS 499 Student Developed Study 1–6 SH

The following courses also have been approved and are offered periodically:
HIS 208 Rise of Industrial America: 1877-1929
HIS/AAS 219 African-American History and Culture
HIS 256 Background to the Civil War
HIS/AAS 284 Africa: From Antiquity to Colonialism
HIS/AAS 285 Modern Africa
HIS/ECO 312 History of Economic Thought
HIS/ECO 313 The Economic History of American Business
HIS/WS 320 Women and Leadership
HIS 341 The Russians